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Grammar_Chen_ch1

Page history last edited by PBworks 13 years, 10 months ago

Chap 1 句子結構


句子結構要健全

Basic Elelments

  • S (缺一不可)
  • V (缺一不可)
  • conj (多 S、V 則以 conj 連接)
adv、adj、prep 片,不是 basic elements,去掉它們對句子結構絲毫沒有影響
做題時注意 SVconj 部分是否以其他詞性搪塞

 

conj、prep、adv

basic elements 中 conj 最易與具連接語氣之 prep、adv 混淆

conjprepadv
whileduring
because, as, forbecause of
so consequently, therefore, thus
and, as well as also, as well
unlessexcept, besidesmoreover
althoughinspite of, despitenevertheless, however
rather than rather, instead

 

意思近,文法上(詞性)卻不同,但通常一個字會有多個詞性,得視句型、意思而定

 

S V O 句型變化 (多個 V 與 and 之關係)

  • S1 and S2 V1 and V2 O1 and O2

    (S、V、O 超過一個,以 and 連接)

  • S V1 and V2

    → S V1 and , V2-ing

    → S V1, V2-ing

    (V 有 2 個,以 and 連接)

    (若死都不要 and: 去 and → 加逗點 → 改 ing)

  • S V1, V2, ..., and Vn

    → S V1, V2-ing, ..., and Vn-ing

    (V 超過 3 個: V2 之後全要改 ing → and 保留在最後)

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同位語

同位語位置

一般放在所修飾的 N (S、O) 後面,但 S 之同位語 亦可移前:

  • S, 同位語, V ... (S 之後)

    (前後有逗號區隔,與前之 S 沒有 conj)

  • S V O, 同位語 (O 之後)

    (與前之 O 沒有 conj)

  • 同位語, S V O ... (S 之同位語 亦可移前)

    (後面句子結構完整,與 S 間沒有 conj)

 

同位語三原則

  1. 要擴張原來意思

    要延伸、豐富所修飾的 N,若只是以「代名詞」代稱,不算同位語

  2. 性質同

    要與所修飾的 N 同性質

  3. 數量同(意思上)

    要與所修飾的 N 同數量,但此數量是指意思上非文法上

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Conj

對等 conj (前後接相同詞性、相同結構)

  • and, or, but, yet, rather than, ...
  • both A and B
  • either A or B
  • neither A nor B
  • not only A but also B
  • A as well as B

    but: 前後意思相反

    and: 前後相關性低(獨立)

    as well as: 強調前者

 

 

附屬子句 conj (後面接的子句變成從屬)

  • N 子句 conj: that, where, when, how, why, what, whether, ...
  • adj 子句 conj: that, who, which, whom, ... (關係代名詞)
    • 後位修飾: N __(which ...)__
    • 關係代名詞: 不僅有 conj 功能,在從屬子句裡亦有N 功能
  • adv子句 conj:
    • 前有 N (關係副詞)(後位修飾)
      • N where(in which) ...
      • N when ...
    • 前無 N:

      when, before, after, since, until (time)

      where, because, although, so ... that ...,

      no matter how adj (or adv), even though

 

 

注意事項

  • what = sth. that

    (what 在從屬子句裡亦有N 功能)

  • wherever = any place where

    whenever = any time when

    (不需後位修飾前面的 N)

  • conj 之後不可任意倒裝,尤其是可兼當疑問詞的 conj,不可與疑問句搞混

    例外: 1. " " 內可亂搞

              2. 否定 conj 放句首

  • that 之前不接 prep → 改用 who or which
  • adj 子句 conj 修飾的不一定是最靠近的 N

 

附屬子句大剖析

N 子句basic element,不會冒冒失失跑出來,主要子句必有缺 S or O

  • __That S V1 ...__ V2 ... (當 S)
  • S + Vt + N 子句 (當 O)
  • S + be + N 子句 (當 SC)
  • S, __N 子句__, V ... (當同位語)

 

adj 子句adv 子句不是 basic element,去掉不看絲毫沒有任何影響,主要子句結構完整

 

adj 子句 conj(關代) 在從屬子句裡有N 功能 → 從屬子句裡必缺 S or O

若其結構完整,則考慮 prep + O

  • N + which + Vt + O (當 S)
  • N + which + S + Vt (當 O)
  • N + which + S + Vi + prep (當 prep 之 O)
  • N + prep + which + S + Vi (後面結構完整) (prep 可提前)

 

N 子句 conj adv 子句 conj從屬子句沒有 N 功能其從屬子句結構完整

  • ex: so...that...thatadv 子句 conj → 後面子句結構完整

    勿與關代 that混為一談

    (what 例外,它雖為N 子句 conj,但仍有 N 功能)

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It is ... that ... 強調語氣句型

除了 V,都可以強調

I met Mary at the bus station __yesterday__.

  • It was I that met Mary at the bus station yesterday.
  • It was Mary that I met at the bus station yesterday.
  • It was at the bus station that I met Mary yesterday.
  • It was yesterday that I met Mary at the bus station.
ex 1: Health hazards associated with smoking were not discovered until the early fifties__.

→ It was not until the early fifties that ...

ex 2: It was ______ horse-drivers were replaced by modern electric cars that the diner become popular.

(A) not until 1897 when (B) not until 1897 that

(C) not until 1897 where (D) not until 1897 which

答案為 (A),本題 __It is ... that ... 的 that 已在題目中,所以答案非 (B)

 

注意事項

  • 勿與 It 當先行詞 之句型搞混
ex 1: It is impossible (to master English in a month).

ex 2: It is certain (that we will succeed).

這裡的 thatN 子句 conj,強調語氣的 that 則只是固定句型

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